Esperamos que este material de los adjetivos sea de tu utilidad.
Tomado de: SlideShare
Estimados seguidores de HomeWorks, a continuación les presentamos un material elaborada por unas chicas de 1er semestre de la carrera de Médico Cirujano, el cual consiste en una investigación sobre la cultura de los estados de la región medio oeste de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Los estados que se abordan en la investigación son Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Dakota, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Nebraska, entre otros, así como su población, clima, religión, lenguaje hablado, etc.
Esperamos sea de su total agrado.
Table of Cardinal Numbers
Separation between hundreds and tens
Hundreds and tens are usually separated by ‘and’ (in American English ‘and’ is not necessary).
110 – one hundred and ten
1,250 – one thousand, two hundred and fifty
2,001 – two thousand and one
USE 1 Repeated Actions
Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.
- I play tennis.
- She does not play tennis.
- Does he play tennis?
- The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
- The train does not leave at 9 AM.
- When does the train usually leave?
- She always forgets her purse.
- He never forgets his wallet.
- Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
- Does the Sun circle the Earth?
- I can do it.
They are leaving.
I have eaten my lunch.
I should have finished my homework.
- I ate the pizza and the pasta.
- Call the movers when you are ready.
You use a co-ordinating conjunction (“and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for,” “so,” or “yet”) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions “but” and “for” as prepositions.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction:
- Lilacs and violets are usually purple.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction “and” links two nouns.
- This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction “for” is used to link two independent clauses.
- Daniel’s uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.
The most common subordinating conjunctions are “after,” “although,” “as,” “because,” “before,” “how,” “if,” “once,” “since,” “than,” “that,” “though,” “till,” “until,” “when,” “where,” “whether,” and “while.”
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:
- After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
The subordinating conjunction “after” introduces the dependent clause “After she had learned to drive.”
- If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.
Similarly, the subordinating conjunction “if” introduces the dependent clause “If the paperwork arrives on time.”
- Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.
The subordinating conjunction “when” introduces the dependent clause “when his computer crashed.”
- Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.
In this sentence, the dependent clause “because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs” is introduced by the subordinating conjunction “because.”
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs — you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are “both…and,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,”, “not only…but also,” “so…as,” and “whether…or.” (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)
The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:
- Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.
- Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.
Here the correlative conjunction “either…or” links two noun phrases: “a Jello salad” and “a potato scallop.”
- Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school.
Similarly, the correlative conjunction “whether … or” links the two infinitive phrases “to go to medical school” and “to go to law school.”
- The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.
In this example the correlative conjunction “not only … but also” links the two noun phrases (“the school” and “neighbouring pub”) which act as direct objects.
Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
- The book is on the table.
- The book is beneath the table.
- The book is leaning against the table.
- The book is beside the table.
- She held the book over the table.
- She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun “book” in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are “about,” “above,” “across,” “after,” “against,” “along,” “among,” “around,” “at,” “before,” “behind,” “below,” “beneath,” “beside,” “between,” “beyond,” “but,” “by,” “despite,” “down,” “during,” “except,” “for,” “from,” “in,” “inside,” “into,” “like,” “near,” “of,” “off,” “on,” “onto,” “out,” “outside,” “over,” “past,” “since,” “through,” “throughout,” “till,” “to,” “toward,” “under,” “underneath,” “until,” “up,” “upon,” “with,” “within,” and “without.”
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:
- The children climbed the mountain without fear.
In this sentence, the preposition “without” introduces the noun “fear.” The prepositional phrase “without fear” functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.
- There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.
Here, the preposition “throughout” introduces the noun phrase “the land.” The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.
- The spider crawled slowly along the banister.
The preposition “along” introduces the noun phrase “the banister” and the prepositional phrase “along the banister” acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.
- The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.
Here the preposition “under” introduces the prepositional phrase “under the porch,” which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb “is hiding.”
- The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office.
Similarly in this sentence, the preposition “in” introduces a prepositional phrase “in his office,” which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.
What is an article? Basically, an article is an adjective. Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.
the = definite article
a/an = indefinite article
For example, if I say, “Let’s read the book,” I mean a specific book. If I say, “Let’s read a book,” I mean any book rather than a specific book.
Here’s another way to explain it: The is used to refer to a specific or particular member of a group. For example, “I just saw the most popular movie of the year.” There are many movies, but only one particular movie is the most popular. Therefore, we use the.
“A/an” is used to refer to a non-specific or non-particular member of the group. For example, “I would like to go see a movie.” Here, we’re not talking about a specific movie. We’re talking about any movie. There are many movies, and I want to see any movie. I don’t have a specific one in mind.
Let’s look at each kind of article a little more closely.
Indefinite Articles: a and an
“A” and “an” signal that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group. For example:
- “My daughter really wants a dog for Christmas.” This refers to any dog. We don’t know which dog because we haven’t found the dog yet.
- “Somebody call a policeman!” This refers to any policeman. We don’t need a specific policeman; we need any policeman who is available.
- “When I was at the zoo, I saw an elephant!” Here, we’re talking about a single, non-specific thing, in this case an elephant. There are probably several elephants at the zoo, but there’s only one we’re talking about here.
Remember, using a or an depends on the sound that begins the next word. So…
- a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy; a car; a bike; a zoo; a dog
- an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant; an egg; an apple; an idiot; an orphan
- a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like ‘yoo-zer,’ i.e. begins with a consonant ‘y’ sound, so ‘a’ is used); a university; a unicycle
- In some cases where “h” is pronounced, such as “historical,” use an:
In writing, “a historical event” is more commonly used.
Remember that this rule also applies when you use acronyms:
Another case where this rule applies is when acronyms start with consonant letters but have vowel sounds:
If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article:
- a broken egg
- an unusual problem
- a European country (sounds like ‘yer-o-pi-an,’ i.e. begins with consonant ‘y’ sound)
Remember, too, that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a group:
- I am a teacher. (I am a member of a large group known as teachers.)
- Brian is an Irishman. (Brian is a member of the people known as Irish.)
- Seiko is a practicing Buddhist. (Seiko is a member of the group of people known as Buddhists.)
Definite Article: the
The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. For example:
“The dog that bit me ran away.” Here, we’re talking about a specific dog, the dog that bit me.
“I was happy to see the policeman who saved my cat!” Here, we’re talking about a particular policeman. Even if we don’t know the policeman’s name, it’s still a particular policeman because it is the one who saved the cat.
“I saw the elephant at the zoo.” Here, we’re talking about a specific noun. Probably there is only one elephant at the zoo.
Count and Noncount Nouns
The can be used with noncount nouns, or the article can be omitted entirely.
- “I love to sail over the water” (some specific body of water) or “I love to sail over water” (any water).
- “He spilled the milk all over the floor” (some specific milk, perhaps the milk you bought earlier that day) or “He spilled milk all over the floor” (any milk).
“A/an” can be used only with count nouns.
- “I need a bottle of water.”
- “I need a new glass of milk.”
Most of the time, you can’t say, “She wants a water,” unless you’re implying, say, a bottle of water.
Geographical use of the
There are some specific rules for using the with geographical nouns.
Do not use the before:
- names of most countries/territories: Italy, Mexico, Bolivia; however, the Netherlands, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
- names of cities, towns, or states: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami
- names of streets: Washington Blvd., Main St.
- names of lakes and bays: Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie except with a group of lakes like the Great Lakes
- names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges of mountains like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn
- names of continents (Asia, Europe)
- names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands
Do use the before:
- names of rivers, oceans and seas: the Nile, the Pacific
- points on the globe: the Equator, the North Pole
- geographical areas: the Middle East, the West
- deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black Forest, the Iberian Peninsula
Omission of Articles
Some common types of nouns that don’t take an article are:
- Names of languages and nationalities: Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian (unless you are referring to the population of the nation: “The Spanish are known for their warm hospitality.”)
- Names of sports: volleyball, hockey, baseball
- Names of academic subjects: mathematics, biology, history, computer science